Improving Compilation Time of C/C++ Projects

We’ve all likely worked on a software or firmware project where the build takes a “coffee break” amount of time to complete. It’s become such a common occurrence that there is an infamous xkcd comic related to the matter.

Build times don’t have to be long, even yours! However, many factors play a role. In this post, we’ll dive into which factors contribute to slower builds, compare and contrast options, and also go over some easy wins which you can immediately contribute to your project and share with your teammates. The techniques discussed apply to most C/C++ compilers and projects, and there are a couple extra tips for those using the GNU GCC compiler.

Hold on tight, as there is a lot to talk about.

Why Speed Up Firmware Build?

Waiting for a build to complete is a waste of time. It’s as if someone decided to tie your hands behind your back a few minutes, tens of hundreds of times a day, ruining your productivity. If your team consists of 5 engineers and the build takes 5 minutes, at 20 builds a day (conservative estimate), that’s 8 hours… a whole work day for an extra single engineer!

Although we commonly run up against slow build times when trying to move quickly, there are many other pieces of “infrastructure” (or lack thereof) that can slow down the productivity of a firmware team.

Despite the important topics listed above, I believe that the build system is one of the most important pieces of “infrastructure”. The build system needs constant supervision to keep everyone on the team as productive as possible. There’s no use in paying an engineer (or ten) if the majority of the time during the day is spent waiting for builds to complete.


To set things straight, I don’t love build systems. They are complex, unintuitive, and require a deep understanding of each one to do things correctly. The GNU Make Manual is one of the few manuals I’ve read cover to cover, and it was one of the best uses of my time (and my employer’s). When you mash together parallel build issues, shelling out to single-threaded Python scripts, downloading files from remote servers and package managers, and auto-generating source files, the build infrastructure could very easy slow down to a crawl if not done properly.

In this post, we will primarily focus on speeding up the compilation side of the build system by testing out different compilers and compilation strategies.

First Steps and Suggestions

These are some up-front suggestions that you should take before trying to speed up the build using the latter, more time-consuming methods. If one of these isn’t satisfied, I’d start there.

  • Don’t settle for less than a quad-core CPU & solid-state disk on your development machine.
  • Don’t work on virtual file systems or network drives. Ensure your project is on the host’s file system.
  • Exclude your working directories from your your corporate or built-in anti-virus software. I’ve seen 2-3x slowdowns without the exclusion.
  • Use the newest set of compilers and tools that you can reasonably use.
  • The build shouldn’t require a “clean” before each “build”, nor should changing one file trigger a rebuild of most of the files in your project.
  • Ensure no timestamps are injected into the build which would force rebuilds.
  • Try not to enable link-time optimizations (LTO) as the linking step sometimes becomes as slow as the entire build itself! If you have enabled it due to code size constraints, I suggest checking out Interrupt’s code size posts for easy wins.

Example Build Environment

To put these suggestions to the test, I took the example LwIP_HTTP_Server_Netconn_RTOS from STM32CubeF4 project1, found a GCC port2, and used that to test the various operating systems, compilers, and build systems. To easily get the same environment locally, one can clone the project from the Interrupt repository and perform the appropriate steps for each compiler.

$ git clone
$ cd interrupt/example/faster-compilation

Make will automatically download the STM32CubeF4 and extract it to the appropriate place. When not using Make, download the distribution from Github and extract it to stm32cube/

  • GCC - Using Make, run make. Works on macOS, Linux, and Windows
  • Keil - Open stm32cube/Projects/STM32F429ZI-Nucleo/Applications/LwIP/LwIP_HTTP_Server_Netconn_RTOS/MDK-ARM/Project.uvprojx
  • IAR - Open stm32cube/Projects/STM32F429ZI-Nucleo/Applications/LwIP/LwIP_HTTP_Server_Netconn_RTOS/EWARM/Project.eww

Below are the versions of the programs tested:

  • Keil: MDK-Arm 5.29 on Windows, where armcc is ARM Compiler 5.06, and armclang is ARM Compiler 6.13
  • IAR: IAR Embedded Workbench for ARM 8.42.1 on Windows
  • GCC: GNU ARM Embedded Toolchain 8-2019-q33 for macOS, Linux, and Windows

The operating system environments were as follows:

  • Windows: a VirtualBox image of Windows 10 was used, with 8GB RAM and 4 CPU
  • Linux: Ubuntu 18.04 on Docker, with 8GB RAM and 4 CPU
  • macOS: 10.14 Mojave native installation, 16GB RAM and 4 CPU.

Steps Towards Faster Builds

Parallel Compilation

The first and easiest thing to do to speed up builds is ensure you are building with multiple threads. Make, IAR, and Keil all support parallel compilation, so ensure you and the entire team have enabled this.

Below are some times recorded compiling the example project with GCC and different thread counts.

comparison of compiler build times with GCC threads

With Make, it is as simple as invoking Make with the argument -jN, where N is the number of desired threads to use. If you or your team members occasionally forget to pass in this parameter, I suggest wrapping the command using Invoke.

If you are calling Make from a Makefile (a.k.a. recursive Make4), verify that you are using $(MAKE) instead of make when using it in a rule, as follows:

	$(MAKE) -C subdir

	make -C subdir

If you passed in -j4 --output-sync=recurse as arguments to your initial Make call, they will also be passed through to future $(MAKE) calls. In the second # BAD example above, they will not be propagated and Make will run somerule: in a single thread.

Use A Faster Compiler

Some compilers are faster than others. The build times of our example project shown below were calculated by taking the average time among 5 builds for each setup.

comparison of compiler build times

GCC for macOS, Linux, and Windows performed the best regardless of operating system, coming in just under 10 seconds. ARM Compiler 6 with Keil then IAR followed close behind. Keil with ARM Compiler 5 (armcc) was significantly slower. If you are using ARM Compiler 5, I’d try to upgrade ASAP.

ccache - Compiler Cache

NOTE: This is trivial to set up when using GCC + Make. It might be more difficult or impossible with other build systems or compilers.

ccache5 is a compiler cache that speeds up recompilation. It compares the input files and compilation flags to any previous inputs it has previously compiled, and if there is a match, it will pull the compiled object file from its cache and provide that instead of recompiling the input. It is useful when switching branches often and in CI systems where subsequent builds are very similar. It’s not uncommon to see 10x speedups for large projects.

comparison of compile build times with ccache

Some people question whether ccache is safe to use in production due to the risk of an accidental cache hit. The ccache homepage covers this topic.

Using ccache

You can use ccache by prefixing the compiler when compiling individual files.

$ ccache arm-none-eabi-gcc <args>

ccache can be installed in the following ways for each operating system:

I suggest against the commonly suggested way of symlinking your compilers to the ccache binary and instead to set up your build system in the following way:

ARM_CC    ?= arm-none-eabi-gcc
CC_PREFIX ?= ccache
CC        ?= $(CC_PREFIX) $(ARM_CC)

%.o : %.c
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c -o $@ $<

With this setup, your environment remains simple and developers only need to install ccache with no further setup.

You can easily check whether ccache is set up properly using the following steps and verifying there are “cache hits”.

# This initial build with populate the cache
$ make

# Clear ccache stats
$ ccache --zero-stats

# Run the build again (most artifacts should be cached)
$ make clean && make

# Ensure ccache had some hits
$ ccache --show-stats
cache directory                     /Users/tyler/.ccache
primary config                      /Users/tyler/.ccache/ccache.conf
secondary config      (readonly)    /usr/local/Cellar/ccache/3.7.3/etc/ccache.conf
stats updated                       Mon Feb 10 23:24:26 2020
stats zeroed                        Mon Feb 10 23:24:18 2020
cache hit (direct)                     0
cache hit (preprocessed)              75
cache miss                             0
cache hit rate                    100.00 %
called for link                        4
can't use precompiled header           1
cleanups performed                     0
files in cache                      8521
cache size                         197.0 MB
max cache size                       5.0 GB

As you can see above, I had a 100% cache hit rate on a rebuild!

If you have a substantially large project, I’ve heard good things about icecc6 and sccache7, but these are generally for projects with thousands of large files and many developers.

Optimizing Header Includes and Dependencies

This (large) section goes into how to clean up and optimize dependencies between your source files and headers.

Large Files = Slow Builds

Generally speaking, the larger the input file into the compiler is, the longer it will take to compile. If the compiler is fed a file of 10 lines, it might take 10 ms to compile, but with 5000 lines, it might take 100 ms.

One step that happens before a file is compiled is “preprocessing”. A preprocessor takes all #include "file.h" essentially copy-pastes the contents into each source file, and does this recursively. This means that a .c file as small as the following could wind up being 5000+ lines of code for the compiler!

// extra.c

#include "stm32f4xx.h"

char *extra(void) {
  return "extra";

We can check the contents of the preprocessed (post-processed) file by calling gcc with the -E flag.

$ arm-none-eabi-gcc -E -g -Os ... -c src/extra.c > preprocessed.txt
$ cat preprocessed.txt | wc -l

It turns out that the header file stm32f4xx.h and all of its transitively included header files amass into a file of 5398 lines. To put some build numbers to this result, let’s test compiling this small file with and without the stm32f4xx.h header.

# Header included
$ time arm-none-eabi-gcc ... -c -o obj/extra.o ./src/extra.c
0.17s user 0.03s system 96% cpu 0.206 total

# Header excluded
$ time arm-none-eabi-gcc ... -c -o obj/extra.o ./src/extra.c
0.03s user 0.02s system 90% cpu 0.053 total

This shows that, just by including a single header in our otherwise 3 line .c file, the file went from being built in 50 ms to 200 ms. In the next section we’ll see how easy it is to slow down every compilation due to an accidental or large included header file.

Preventing Dependencies is hard

It’s incredibly easy to accidentally add a nasty header dependency chain into your code base. Take for example the file FreeRTOSConfig.h in the Amazon AWS FreeRTOS nRF52840 port, linked here.

That configuration file should have no external dependencies. It’s also a file that you should be free to import anywhere and everywhere, as it’s small and self contained, consisting only of macros. However, in this particular nRF52840 port, the FreeRTOSConfig.h file has a few extra seemingly innocent imports.

Check out the dependency graph below for the file FreeRTOSConfig.h mentioned above:

AWS FreeRTOS nrf52 config dependency issues

You can see that, while the FreeRTOSConfig.h header should have little to no dependencies, it ultimately includes 30 other header files along with it.

If we take the FreeRTOS linked list implementation file FreeRTOS/list.c and compile it, it will now include all of those headers mentioned above, which include the vendor and hardware specific files. A file that should take no more than 50 ms to compile now takes roughly 500 ms on my machine!

To investigate for yourself which headers are recursively included for a single .c file, you can use GCC’s -MMD flag to print out intermediate .d files for us during the compilation. These files are usually used as an input to Make for auto dependency generation8, but we can also look at them by hand.

I’ve published the AWS FreeRTOS nRF52830 list.d file in a Github Gist.

Next time, before including that extra header file, especially to another header file, think twice.

Find Large Files and Dependency Chains Quickly

To find the largest files after preprocessing, you can pass the CFLAG argument -save-temps to GCC, which will save these intermediate files as .i files (it will also save the result of the assembler as .s files). This allows you to get a rough idea of the largest files that the compiler sees.

My one-liner for this step is to find all .i files, run them through wc -l to print out the number of lines, then sort -r to sort in descending order.

$ find . -name "*.i" | xargs wc -l | sort -rn
   11445 ./stm32f4xx_hal_i2c.i
   11272 ./api_msg.i
   10307 ./api_lib.i
   10206 ./stm32f4xx_hal_tim.i
   10102 ./memp.i

We can also count the number of lines in each .d file. This gives us a rough idea of the .c files which include the largest number of header files.

$ find . -name "*.d" | xargs wc -l | sort -rn
     110 ./dep/memp.d
     105 ./dep/timeouts.d
     105 ./dep/init.d
      99 ./dep/netif.d
      99 ./dep/api_msg.d

Exploring Header Dependency Graphs

Rather than just thinking twice before adding a header file, there are tools (albeit not great ones) you can use to explore dependency graphs. I won’t explain them here as I have found this post by Gernot Klingler on the topic to be a really good resource on the topic.

The primary way I dig into dependency issues is by investigating GCC’s .d files that it produces and look for repeated trees of includes. If you find that every file in your firmware includes FreeRTOS or standard peripheral headers, there are probably issues to fix.

One tool I would be wary of using or investing time in is Include What You Use9 (or IWYU). I have found that the egregious dependency issues, the ones that slow down your build by minutes, can usually be fixed by resolving just a few includes or headers. When running IWYU, it will complain about every file and will likely hide the root issues. I suggest investigating the .d files or one of the other Graphiz style tools mentioned in the post linked above.

Fixing Header Dependency Issues

Speeding up the build by resolving header dependency chains is mostly a guess-and-check process. You have to try something, do a clean rebuild, and then compare times or lines of code. I’ve committed a number of these fixes to previous projects I’ve worked on, and I have some tips to share.

  1. Don’t include headers in your header files (.h) that should have been included in your .c or .cpp files.
  2. For headers that are included frequently and/or include many other headers, consider using forward declarations10. For instance, let’s look at the following header file.

    // settings_file.h
    // Very Large Header File!
    #include "filesystem.h"
    bool settings_file_open(File *file);

    We are including filesystem.h only to have an opaque pointer to a File defined, but we are paying the price by including such a large file. Since we don’t need the full internal definition of File, we can instead use a forward declaration.

    // settings_file.h
    typedef struct File File;
    bool settings_file_open(File *file);

    If you find yourself needing to forward declare this more than once, I suggest creating a header file filesystem_types.h which contains these declarations. Now other files can include this new _types.h header instead.

    // filesystem_types.h
    typedef struct File File;
    // Other forward declarations
  3. Use include guards. I suggest using #pragma once since it is less error prone and is quite portable11. The standard C way works too.
  4. Wrap third party library code in an abstraction layer so its internal types and headers do not leak where they do not belong. Vendors are not in the business of clean and quick compiling code, and you shouldn’t be at the mercy of their bad habits.

On a previous project, the most significant patch I made related to header dependencies resulted in a compilation speedup of 30%. Before the change, almost every file in our firmware project had incidentally included the entire set of our vendor’s peripheral library header files, which are usually huge. Each .c file was accidentally including more than 600 headers.

The fix was to create a couple of ..._types.h files which contained forward declarations to help break the dependencies between our code and vendor code.

Precompiled headers

NOTE: This is a GCC/Clang-only feature.

After cleaning up all of the header dependency issues that you can find, there may still be some headers that you can’t avoid including everywhere, and they are slowing down your build. The good news is that there is a way to pre-compile your headers with GCC12.

Pre-compiling a header means that the compiler will only need to compile a header once, and whenever it is included by other files, it will reuse the built object. It compiles the header into an intermediate file with the extension .h.gch. If the location of these files is added as an include path when compiling (before the real headers), GCC will use the precompiled versions instead.

Implementing Precompiled Headers

Let’s go over the easiest way to do this in GCC, one that doesn’t require you to re-architect your project.

First, create a header file precompiled.h and place it in your source tree. Add a rule to compile this header, just as you would with a .c file. It should be built before building the .c or .cpp files. Then include this header using the CFLAG argument -include <> when compiling the .c and .cpp files. With Make, this looks something like:

PRECOMPILED_H := "precompiled.h"

%.h.gch: $(PRECOMPILED_H)
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c -o $@ $<
%.o : %.c | $(PRECOMPILED_H_OBJ)
	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -include $(PRECOMPILED_H) -c -o $@ $<

Time to try it out. Let’s go back to our extra.c file we had defined above.

// extra.c

#include "stm32f4xx.h"

char *extra(void) {
  return "extra";

Recall that the inclusion of the stm32f4xx.h header caused the build time to slow down by ~150 ms for this file.

If we create a precompiled.h file with the contents below

// precompiled.h

#include "stm32f4xx.h"

// Add other large headers

and compile our extra.c file with this included, we go back to our 50 ms compile time!

Profiling the Build System

I’ve now provided a few ways for you to speed up the compilation of files, but how do you go about profiling the rest of the build system rules? I have some good news and bad news.

The good news is that most modern build systems have a way to show the execution trace of the entire build, broken down by each rule. This is a great way to find out how long each file takes to build and also to find where the bottle necks are during parallel builds.

The bad news is that if you are using Make, there isn’t a great way to do profiling. My ultimate suggestion would be to just not use Make and opt for something more modern. Bazel and CMake are good options. However, continue reading if you want a couple of hacks for profiling build steps with Make.

Profiling Individual Make Build Commands

The easiest way to add timing information to compilation steps is to prepend the time command to the desired rules. For instance, if we wanted to profile each call to $(CC), we could do something like

CC = time arm-none-eabi-gcc


%.o : %.c
	time $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c -o $@ $<

NOTE: When using parallel builds in Make, the logging output can get scrambled. My advice is to ensure you are using a newer version of GNU Make and the --output-sync=recurse command line option13.

Profiling Every Make Build Rule

If you want to profile every build rule in your Makefile, a clever approach is to override the SHELL Make variable with a timing script.

It produces a lot of noise, but it may help you discover slow steps in the build.


I hope this post has helped uncover some ways that you could try to improve the build time of your firmware projects.

I would argue that it may be more difficult to keep the build time fast than it is to initially make it fast. For this, I recommend tracking the build times either in your CI system or in an external database that can be referenced retroactively. If you notice that your build time somehow slipped from 1 minute to 2 minutes, you can easily look through all master commits and see where the build time regression took place.

Do you have any further ideas or ways that you have employed to speed up your firmware builds? I’d love to hear them!

All the code used in this blog post is available on Github.

See anything you'd like to change? Submit a pull request or open an issue on our GitHub


Tyler Hoffman has worked on the embedded software teams at Pebble and Fitbit. He is now a founder at Memfault.